It is well known, that the major sources of increase in production and quality of forages are natural grazing lands. The grazing period is the most favourable for support of livestock. Highly nourishing green grass costs to farms much less, than any prepared feed. Moreover the sun, fresh air, free movement provide beneficial influence on livestock's health. At the same time pastures are not only a source of cheap forages, but they also impose serious threats to healthy animals.
Pastures are populated with molluscs, ants, ticks intermediate owners of many dangerous helminths, as they are frequently infested with the larvae of many kinds of helminths. Sites of pastures with time reservoirs, dams, bogs are especially contaminated with them. On pasture animals contact pathogenic organism causing diseases (fastsioles, dikrotselia, paramfistomes, protostrangilides and others).
Very few people reflect that if their cows are sick with fastsioles, the yield of milk is reduced by 40 percent, in weight of 400 kg from 1,5 to 4 kg of liver is dangerous. At disease echinococcosis we receive from each sheep less than 9,5% of wool, 10,4% meat, 19% fat, more than half of liver and lungs is rejected, the output of lambs is reduced by 80%. Many helminthes represent the big health hazard for people (echinococcosis, trihinella, opistorhes and others).
On grazing lands various poisonous plants (cotton-grass, bristly weed, bristle grey), also cause severe digestion disorder. When cows eat seasonal cocktail, wild onions, madder, euphorbia, ladys bedstraw milk gets pink or reddish shade. Some plants, for example, saffron milk cap summer, hemp nettle, garbage peppergrass gives meat unpleasant smell.
Skin inflammation diseases caused by ultra-violet of sunlight are observed at animals having eaten green buckwheat millet, cow-parsnip, xanthium ordinary, goose-foot and amaranth.
The feather grass, wild wheat, when eaten, causes mechanical damages of skin, stomach, and guts for animals. Especially harmful, for example, for sheep, is feather-grass, which grains get into wool of sheep, and penetrates into muscular tissue, causing purulent inflammation.
What shortcomings are obvious from year to year in the organization of the livestock pastures? First of all, there is no ecological evaluation of pastures. Despite of constancy of biotopes of molluscs, ants intermediate owners of helmynthes, no scheme is made. Improvement of natural meadows and pastures is made seldom, cultural pastures are not created, irrationally used, the system of pastures with change of shelters every 5-7 days is not practise.
Scheduled anti-parasitic treatment of animals is not carrying out (partial livestock inspection, the biology of the activator, season of year is not taken into account), there is no systematic decision of problem of parasites, etc.
It is known, that the most successful treatment of diseases caused by parasites includes a complex of effective and comprehensive in certain natural-climatic and economic conditions of treatment-and-prophylactic actions against parasites at all stages of their development in environment and in organism of animals. In the basis of preventive actions against parasites diseases are biological, chemical and preventive methods, which allow not only to prevent occurrence of diseases, but also to promote the recovering of animals from these diseases successfully.
Among the biological methods are biothermal disinfecting of manure, ploughing-up and land improvement of pastures, drainage of reservoirs, isolation and change of pasturable sites and createdion of cultivated pastures.
For preventive treatment of diseases, for struggle against ticks carriers of activators of diseases and parasitic insects we use various insecticides and fungicides such as copper sulphate, for struggle against molluscs molluscocides. For preventive treatment of the diseases caused by helmynthes, we apply specific chemicals. They destroy or detain development helmynthes in organism of owners.
The primary goal for the protection of pastures and maintenance them in normal condition is the maintenance of veterinary well-being allowing prevention of reduction of livestock, decrease in efficiency of animals that is possible at security of animals forages of high quality, conditions of the maintenance. For that purpose it is necessary:
To give ecological estimation of pastures, to specify epizootic situation on infectious and parasitic diseses, to make schemes of biotopes of intermediate owners;
To organize diagnostic inspections of animals for optimum terms and of necessary volume (with respect to biological cycle of the activator);
To process biotopes with molluscocides-copper sulphate and 5,4 dichlorsali-cylaniline.
Change of pastures once in the middle of pasturable season (carry out at the end of July the beginning of August), taking into account duration of survival of adolescaria (larvas of fasciole) in particular area. It is necessary to separate pastures for various age groups of animals.
The practice of helmynth infestation treatment shows, that realization only one helmynthinisation cannot achieve steady recovery of animals from helmynthes in gastrointestinal tract, for example, sheep from trihostrongilidoses. Alongside with carrying out helmynthinisation it is necessary to break epizootic chain, moving young animals on the pastures, not polluted with parasites. But not all farms have such opportunity. Therefore we recommend to include into the diet of sheep feotinazino-copper-containing mixture. In this and other cases polysalts of micronutrients are added to medicated mixtures. But it is necessary to remember the following: infection with helmynthes is prevented only in the event when the lamb daily eat 0,5 g of fenotiazina, and breaks in its use do not exceed two days.
Lambs eat such quantity of preparation only when weaned.
Introduction of complex of actions during the pasturable breeding of animals sharply reduces losses of young animals, raises productivity of cattle.
Newsletter No: 2-3, March, 2002.